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Stretching and Kibble scaling regimes for Hubble-damped defect networks

C. J. A. P. Martins, I. Yu. Rybak, A. Avgoustidis, E. P. S. Shellard

Abstract
The cosmological evolution of topological defect networks can broadly be divided into two stages. At early times they are friction-dominated due to particle scattering and therefore non-relativistic, and may either be conformally stretched or evolve in the Kibble regime. At late times they are relativistic and evolve in the well known linear scaling regime. In this work we show that a sufficiently large Hubble damping (that is a sufficiently fast expansion rate) leads to a linear scaling regime where the network is non-relativistic. This is therefore another realization of a Kibble scaling regime, and also has a conformal stretching regime counterpart which we characterize for the first time. We describe these regimes using analytic arguments in the context of the velocity-dependent one-scale model, and we confirm them using high-resolution 40963 field theory simulations of domain wall networks. We also use these simulations to improve the calibration of this analytic model for the case of domain walls.

Physical Review D
Volume 94
December 2016

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Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences

Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences (IA) is a new but long anticipated research infrastructure with a national dimension. It embodies a bold but feasible vision for the development of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences in Portugal, taking full advantage and fully realizing the potential created by the national membership of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). IA resulted from the merging the two most prominent research units in the field in Portugal: the Centre for Astrophysics of the University of Porto (CAUP) and the Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics of the University of Lisbon (CAAUL). It currently hosts more than two-thirds of all active researchers working in Space Sciences in Portugal, and is responsible for an even greater fraction of the national productivity in international ISI journals in the area of Space Sciences. This is the scientific area with the highest relative impact factor (1.65 times above the international average) and the field with the highest average number of citations per article for Portugal.

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